A person is underdressing, showering, or just woke up with a small bruise on his/her leg or arm. He/she try hard to remember what caused it. He/she does not remember he/she bumped into anything. The source remains a mystery for him/her. Usually, it happens to the best of us. Right?

For some people, these marks appear more frequently. It is just like seeming out of nowhere, and it lasts longer. The reason is simple. These people tend to bruise more easily. Before diving deep into its causes, symptoms, and diagnosis, treatment, and facts, let us first understand what exactly bruise means.

What is Bruise?

A bruise is a common and traumatic skin injury that results in discoloration of the skin. In bruising, blood vessels bursts and leak blood under the skin’s surface. Generally, it is because of an injury to muscle and connective tissue.

Generally, your skin can reveal many clues about your health. Therefore, if you are experiencing mysterious unexplained black and blue marks frequently and those marks are making you worry, you should consult a doctor. Most cases of bruising are nothing to worry about, but finding frequent bruises can sometimes signal health problems. Therefore, one should consult a doctor.

Symptoms of a Bruise

·         In starting, a fresh bruise may be reddish. Within a few hours, it will then convert into a blue or dark purple. Then as soon as it heals, it transforms into yellow or green color.

·         Generally, a bruise is tender. However, sometimes it is painful for the first few days, but the pain usually goes away as the color fades. 

·         In a bruise, the skin is not broken. Therefore, there is no risk of infection.

Reasons Why You Might Bruise Easily

1)    Blood Thinners and Other Drugs

Besides injury, if a person is taking blood thinners – medications or supplements then it can slow down or decrease your blood’s clotting ability. It is the number one cause of easy bruising. There are some other drugs such as steroids; it can also lead to thinner skin. It can be the reason for frequent bruises.

2)    Vitamin Deficiency

If a person has vitamin K deficiency that is usually found in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, then he/she can experience bruising easily. A severe vitamin C deficiency could also be the culprit in it.

3)    Aging

As a person ages, his/her skin and blood vessels become more fragile. He/she loses collagen, elastin, and some of the subcutaneous fat that cushions and protects small blood vessels. Therefore, even a minor bump or grab on the arm can leave a bruise.

4)    Cancer

In rare cases, if a person is experiencing easy bruising, then it could be a sign of blood, bone marrow, or lymph node cancers. The marks pop us as small red dots from bleeding under the skin, but it can look like large bruises as well.

5)    Liver Disease

Easy bruising could be symptoms of liver problems. The liver is responsible for many functions, including the production of clotting factor. When a particular organ is damaged, slowdowns, or stop producing the proteins required for blood clotting, you would bruise or bleed easily.

6)    Genetic Factors

Some genetic factors can also be the reason for bruising easily. It can run in the family. These genetic causes can lead to change in your platelet count or the other factors involved in clotting.

When to Seek Medical Care

·         If a person is experiencing significant pain or swelling, then he/she should consult a doctor.

·         Some small blood spots showed up due to fever, chills, weight loss or any other systemic symptoms that are new

·         Frequent bruises without any apparent causes

·         Call the doctor if a bruise does not improve within two weeks or fails to completely clear after 3 or 4 weeks.

Tips to Prevent and Treat Bruises

No matter how careful a person is, he/she will get a bruising from time to time. Here are some tips to prevent it.

·         Wear protective gear while exercising or playing sports.

·         Use good lighting at home to avoid falling.

·         Avoid clutter and throw rugs, especially on stairs.

·         Arrange furniture and electrical cords in such a way that they are not in the way when walking.

·         One should know the side effects of medications he/she is taking.

·         One should have vision and hearing tested because even small changes in sight can cause a person to fall.

 Usually, once a bruise has formed, one cannot do much to treat it. Most bruises eventually disappear as the body reabsorbs the blood. However, healing might take longer as a person ages. One can apply ice on an affected area to speed healing and reduce swelling as a home remedy to treat bruise. 

Final Thoughts

In most cases, bruises usually disappear within a few days. However, if a person is experiencing frequent bruises, then it could be an early warning sign that something is wrong with his/her organs or blood vessels. So, one should not wait for much or ignore a change in the bruising pattern. It is best to consult a doctor as soon as possible in such cases.